Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. It is an open-source language.
There are several numeric data types in python let’s understand them one by one. In python, there is no need to define a data type of any of the variables. Once you assign a value to a particular variable it automatically detects its datatype.
E.g: A variable of numeric type will be created once you assign a value to them.
Types of numbers in Python:
# integer type variable1 = 5 # float type variable2 = 3.142 # complex type variable3 = 5j # type() method return the type of variable # data type of the variable print(type(variable1)) print(type(variable2)) print(type(variable3))
Type conversion in python:
Sometimes we need to convert one type of data to another type to meet requirements. This is achieved with the help of type conversion.
Type conversion is a technique of converting the value of one data type i.e.(integer, complex, float, etc.) to another data type.
Type conversion in python is divided into two parts:
- Implicit type conversion:- In Implicit type conversion, the python interpreter itself converts the type of a variable to another type without the user’s consent.
- Explicit type conversion:- In Explicit type conversion, the user can explicitly change the data type of the variables. Python has the following built-in functions for type conversion:
- int(): To convert any number or string of numbers to an integer.
- float(): To convert numbers to floating-point.
- complex(): To convert two numbers to a complex number.
var1 = 1.2 #float var1 = int(var1) #convert 1.2 i.e float to integer print(type(var1)) #integer var2 = 1 #integer var2 = float(var2) #convert 1 i.e integer to floating point type print(type(var2)) #float var3 = 1 #integer var4 = 2 #integer var5 = complex(1,2) #convert 1 and 2 i.e integers into complex number print(type(var5)) #complex
Python has a variety of modules like math and random to carry out different mathematical calculations and operations like trigonometry, logarithms, probability, statistics, etc.
The math module in python is a standard module and is always available. To use this module in our program we just have to simply import it using the command import math and it gives access to all the different functions present in the module.
# importing math module in our program import math #square root of 4 print("The square root of 4 is:") print(math.sqrt(4)) print("\n") #value of pi print("Value of pi is:") print(math.pi) print("\n") #trigonometric cos value of pi print("The trigonometric cos value of pi is: ") print(math.cos(math.pi)) print("\n") #value of log of 1000 to the base 10 print("Value of log of 1000 to the base 10 is: ") print(math.log10(1000)) print("\n") #factorial of 5 print("Factorial of 5 is: ") print(math.factorial(5))
The square root of 4 is:
Value of pi is:
The trigonometric cos value of pi is:
Value of log of 1000 to the base 10 is:
Factorial of 5 is:
Below is the list of some functions that are available in the math module of python with their description.
|factorial(x)||Returns the factorial of x|
|fabs(x)||Returns the absolute value of x|
|fmod(x, y)||Returns the remainder when x is divided by y|
|ceil(x)||Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to x.|
|floor(x)||Returns the largest integer less than or equal to x|
|isfinite(x)||Returns True if x is neither infinity nor a NaN (Not a Number)|
|isinf(x)||Returns True if x is a positive or negative infinity|
|modf(x)||Returns the fractional and integer parts of x|
|trunc(x)||Returns the truncated integer value of x|
|log2(x)||Returns the base-2 logarithm of x|
|log10(x)||Returns the base-10 logarithm of x|
|pow(x, y)||Returns x raised to the power y|
|sqrt(x)||Returns the square root of x|
|acos(x)||Returns the arc cosine of x|
|asin(x)||Returns the arc sine of x|
|atan(x)||Returns the arc tangent of x|
|atan2(y, x)||Returns atan(y / x)|
|cos(x)||Returns the cosine of x|
|sin(x)||Returns the sine of x|
|tan(x)||Returns the tangent of x|
|erf(x)||Returns the error function at x|
|gamma(x)||Returns the Gamma function at x|
|pi||The mathematical constant is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (3.14159…)|
|erfc(x)||Returns the complementary error function at x|
|lgamma(x)||Returns the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the Gamma function at x|
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