**Python** is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. It is an open-source language.

**Python Numbers:**

There are several numeric data types in python let’s understand them one by one. In python, there is no need to define a data type of any of the variables. Once you assign a value to a particular variable it automatically detects its datatype.

*E.g**: A variable of numeric type will be created once you assign a value to them.*

**Types of numbers in Python:**

**Int****Float****Complex**

**Code:**

## Python Code

```
# integer type
variable1 = 5
# float type
variable2 = 3.142
# complex type
variable3 = 5j
# type() method return the type of variable
# data type of the variable
print(type(variable1))
print(type(variable2))
print(type(variable3))
```

**Output:**

<class ‘int’>

<class ‘float’>

<class ‘complex’>

**Type conversion in python:**

Sometimes we need to convert one type of data to another type to meet requirements. This is achieved with the help of type conversion.

**Type conversion** is a technique of converting the value of one data type i.e.(integer, complex, float, etc.) to another data type.

Type conversion in python is divided into two parts:

**Implicit type conversion:-**In Implicit type conversion, the python interpreter itself converts the type of a variable to another type without the user’s consent.

**Explicit type conversion:-**In Explicit type conversion, the user can explicitly change the data type of the variables. Python has the following built-in functions for type conversion:

**int():**To convert any number or string of numbers to an integer.**float():**To convert numbers to floating-point.**complex():**To convert two numbers to a complex number.

**Code:**

## Python Code

```
var1 = 1.2 #float
var1 = int(var1) #convert 1.2 i.e float to integer
print(type(var1)) #integer
var2 = 1 #integer
var2 = float(var2) #convert 1 i.e integer to floating point type
print(type(var2)) #float
var3 = 1 #integer
var4 = 2 #integer
var5 = complex(1,2) #convert 1 and 2 i.e integers into complex number
print(type(var5)) #complex
```

**Output:**

<class ‘int’>

<class ‘float’>

<class ‘complex’>

**Python Mathematics**

Python has a variety of modules like** math** and** random** to carry out different mathematical calculations and operations like trigonometry, logarithms, probability, statistics, etc.

The **math** module in python is a standard module and is always available. To use this module in our program we just have to simply import it using the command **import math** and it gives access to all the different functions present in the module.

**Code:**

## Python Code

```
# importing math module in our program
import math
#square root of 4
print("The square root of 4 is:")
print(math.sqrt(4))
print("\n")
#value of pi
print("Value of pi is:")
print(math.pi)
print("\n")
#trigonometric cos value of pi
print("The trigonometric cos value of pi is: ")
print(math.cos(math.pi))
print("\n")
#value of log of 1000 to the base 10
print("Value of log of 1000 to the base 10 is: ")
print(math.log10(1000))
print("\n")
#factorial of 5
print("Factorial of 5 is: ")
print(math.factorial(5))
```

**Output:**

The square root of 4 is:

2.0

Value of pi is:

3.141592653589793

The trigonometric cos value of pi is:

-1.0

Value of log of 1000 to the base 10 is:

3.0

Factorial of 5 is:

120

Below is the list of some functions that are available in the **math **module of python with their description.

Function | Description |

factorial(x) | Returns the factorial of x |

fabs(x) | Returns the absolute value of x |

fmod(x, y) | Returns the remainder when x is divided by y |

ceil(x) | Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to x. |

floor(x) | Returns the largest integer less than or equal to x |

isfinite(x) | Returns True if x is neither infinity nor a NaN (Not a Number) |

isinf(x) | Returns True if x is a positive or negative infinity |

modf(x) | Returns the fractional and integer parts of x |

trunc(x) | Returns the truncated integer value of x |

exp(x) | Returns e**x |

log2(x) | Returns the base-2 logarithm of x |

log10(x) | Returns the base-10 logarithm of x |

pow(x, y) | Returns x raised to the power y |

sqrt(x) | Returns the square root of x |

acos(x) | Returns the arc cosine of x |

asin(x) | Returns the arc sine of x |

atan(x) | Returns the arc tangent of x |

atan2(y, x) | Returns atan(y / x) |

cos(x) | Returns the cosine of x |

sin(x) | Returns the sine of x |

tan(x) | Returns the tangent of x |

erf(x) | Returns the error function at x |

gamma(x) | Returns the Gamma function at x |

pi | The mathematical constant is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (3.14159…) |

erfc(x) | Returns the complementary error function at x |

lgamma(x) | Returns the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the Gamma function at x |

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