# Intersection of two sorted arrays

Problem Statement: Find the intersection of two sorted arrays. OR in other words, Given 2 sorted arrays, find all the elements which occur in both the arrays.

Examples:

```Example 1:
Input:
A: [1 2 3 3 4 5 6]
, B: [3 3 5]
Output: 3,3,5
Explanation: We are given two arrays A and B.
The elements present in both the arrays
are 3,3 and 5.

Example 2:
Input:
A: [1 2 3 3 4 5 6]
, B: [3 5]
Output: 3,5
Explanation: We are given two arrays A and B.
The elements present in both the arrays are 3 and 5.```

Disclaimer: Don’t jump directly to the solution, try it out yourself first.

### Brute Force Approach:

For the brute force approach, we are given 2 arrays, we take an element from array A and search if it is present in array B on the condition that the same element in array B hasn’t been traversed before by any duplicate element in array A.

For Example:

```A: [1 2 3 3 4 5 6]
B: [3 3 5]```
• We first create a visited array for array B which is initialized with 0 indicating that initially none of the elements of array B are visited.
• We start checking the first element from array A if it matches with any element of array B which is not yet visited. If they match, we mark the element in array B as visited, put the element in ans array, and move to the next element in array A.
• If the element matches but is already being visited before, we do not add it to the ans array concluding that the element has been mapped to some other element previously.
• After iterating the whole of Array A, we get the intersection of two arrays stored in the ans array.

For better understanding of intuition, please watch the video at the bottom of my page

Code:

## C++ Code

``````#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

vector<int> intersectionOfArrays(vector<int>A, vector<int>B){

vector <int> ans;

// to maintain visited
vector <int> visited(B.size(), 0);
int i = 0, j = 0;

for (i = 0; i < A.size(); i++) {

for (j = 0; j < B.size(); j++) {

if (A[i] == B[j] && visited[j] == 0) {

//if element matches and has not been matched with any other before
ans.push_back(B[j]);
visited[j] = 1;

break;
}

else if (B[j] > A[i]) break;
//because array is sorted , element will not be beyond this
}
}

return ans;

}

int main() {

// Array Initialisation.
vector < int > A {1,2,3,3,4,5,6,7};
vector < int > B {3,3,4,4,5,8};

vector<int> ans = intersectionOfArrays(A,B);

for (int i = 0; i < ans.size(); i++) {
cout << ans[i] << " ";
}

return 0;
}
``````

Output:

3 3 4 5

Time Complexity: O(n1 x n2) ~ O(n^2) { There are nested loops where the outer one loops n1 times and the inner one loops n2 times, where n1 = A.size() and n2 = B.size() }.
Space Complexity: O(n) { Extra Space used for the visited and ans arrays }.

## Java Code

``````import java.util.*;

class TUF{

public static ArrayList<Integer> intersectionOfArrays(int[] A, int[] B){

ArrayList<Integer> ans=new ArrayList<>();

// to maintain visited
int visited[]=new int[B.length];

for (int i = 0; i < A.length; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < B.length; j++) {

if (A[i] == B[j] && visited[j] == 0) {

//if element matches and has not been matched with any other before
visited[j] = 1;

break;
} else if (B[j] > A[i]) break;
//because array is sorted , element will not be beyond this
}
}
return ans;
}

public static void main(String args[])
{
// Array Initialisation.
int A[]= {1,2,3,3,4,5,6,7};
int B[]= {3,3,4,4,5,8};

ArrayList<Integer> ans= intersectionOfArrays(A,B);

for (int i = 0; i < ans.size(); i++) {
System.out.print(ans.get(i)+" ");
}

}
}
``````

Output:

3 3 4 5

Time Complexity: O(n1 x n2) ~ O(n^2) { There are nested loops where the outer one loops n1 times and the inner one loops n2 times, where n1 = A.size() and n2 = B.size() }.
Space Complexity: O(n) { Extra Space used for the visited and ans arrays }.

### Solution 2: 2 Pointer approach

As we saw in the brute force, we were not going forward as soon as we encountered any element greater than the element we are looking for. That fact, about arrays being sorted, can be used to solve this problem in one pass.

Initialize 2 pointers i and j. i=0 and will iterate over Array A, j=0 and will iterate over Array B.

Now A[i] is less than B[j], so we are certainly not going to find A[i],i.e,1 any further in the array. Let’s increment the pointer i and check the next element.

Again A[i] is less than B[j], so we are certainly not going to find A[i],i.e,2 any further in the array. Let’s increment the pointer i and check the next element.

Now, A[i] and B[j] is a match, so push A[i] into the ans vector. And this time we move both i and j.

Now, A[i] and B[j] is a match, so push A[i] into the ans vector. And this time we move both i and j. Since we are moving both i and j upon encountering a match, there is no way that the same element matches duplicate elements in the other array.

Again A[i] is less than B[j], so we are certainly not going to find A[i],i.e,4 any further in the array. Let’s increment the pointer i and check the next element.

Now, A[i] and B[j] is a match, so push A[i] into the ans vector. And this time we move both i and j. Now when we move j, it goes out of bounds, which means we have traversed the array fully, and there are no elements left to be matched with array A, so we stop here.

Just to make the other case clear as well, if A[i] > B[j],i.e, all elements in A are greater than the current element in B, we move the j pointer. And the loop continues till either array A or B exists.

Code:

## C++ Code

``````#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

vector<int> intersectionOfArrays(vector<int>A, vector<int>B){

// Declare ans array.
vector <int> ans;

int i = 0, j = 0;

// to traverse the arrays
while (i < A.size() && j < B.size()) {

//if current element in i is smaller
if (A[i] < B[j]) {
i++;
} else if (B[j] < A[i]) {
j++;
} else {

//both elements are equal
ans.push_back(A[i]);
i++;
j++;
}
}

return ans;

}

int main() {

// Array Initialisation.
vector < int > A {1,2,3,3,4,5,6,7};
vector < int > B {3,3,4,4,5,8};

vector<int> ans = intersectionOfArrays(A,B);

for (int i = 0; i < ans.size(); i++) {
cout << ans[i] << " ";
}

return 0;
}
``````

Output:

3 3 4 5

Time Complexity: O(n) { Since the elements are compared within the single pass for both the arrays this approach would take a linear time and in the worst case O(n1+n2) where n1 = A.size() and n2 = B.size() }.

Space Complexity: O(1) { There is no extra space used in the two-pointers approach }.

## Java Code

``````import java.util.*;

class TUF{

public static ArrayList<Integer> intersectionOfArrays(int[] A, int[] B){

// Declare ans array.
ArrayList<Integer> ans=new ArrayList<>();

int i = 0, j = 0;

// to traverse the arrays
while (i < A.length && j < B.length) {

//if current element in i is smaller
if (A[i] < B[j]) {
i++;
} else if (B[j] < A[i]) {
j++;
} else {

//both elements are equal
i++;
j++;
}
}
return ans;
}

public static void main(String args[])
{
// Array Initialisation.
int A[]= {1,2,3,3,4,5,6,7};
int B[]= {3,3,4,4,5,8};

ArrayList<Integer> ans= intersectionOfArrays(A,B);

for (int i = 0; i < ans.size(); i++) {
System.out.print(ans.get(i)+" ");
}

}
}
``````

Output:

3 3 4 5

Time Complexity: O(n) { Since the elements are compared within the single pass for both the arrays this approach would take a linear time and in the worst case O(n1+n2) where n1 = A.size() and n2 = B.size() }.

Space Complexity: O(1) { There is no extra space used in the two-pointers approach }.