# Count the number of subarrays with given xor K

Problem Statement: Given an array of integers A and an integer B. Find the total number of subarrays having bitwise XOR of all elements equal to k.

Pre-requisite: Find the number of subarrays with the sum K

Examples
```Example 1:
Input Format: A = [4, 2, 2, 6, 4] , k = 6
Result: 4
Explanation: The subarrays having XOR of their elements as 6 are  [4, 2], [4, 2, 2, 6, 4], [2, 2, 6], 

Example 2:
Input Format: A = [5, 6, 7, 8, 9], k = 5
Result: 2
Explanation: The subarrays having XOR of their elements as 5 are  and [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

```

Disclaimer: Don’t jump directly to the solution, try it out yourself first.

Brute Force Approach: Better Approach: Optimal Approach:
Brute Force Approach
Algorithm / Intuition

### Naive Approach (Brute-force):

Here, in this approach, we are going to generate all possible subarrays to solve this problem.

How to generate all possible subarrays?
We will select all possible starting indices(say i) and all possible ending indices(say j) to generate all possible subarrays. The possible starting indices i.e. i can vary from index 0 to index n-1(i.e. The last index). For every index i, the possible ending index j can vary from i to n-1. So, the nested loops to generate all possible subarrays will be like the following:

### Approach:

The steps are as follows:

1. Generate Subarrays:
1. First, we will run a loop(say i) that will select every possible starting index of the subarray. The possible starting indices can vary from index 0 to index n-1(n = size of the array).
2. Inside the loop, we will run another loop(say j) that will signify the ending index of the subarray. For every subarray starting from the index i, the possible ending index can vary from index i to n-1(n = size of the array).
2. Calculate XOR of the subarray: After that for each subarray starting from index i and ending at index j (i.e. arr[i….j]), we will run another loop to calculate the XOR of all the elements(of that particular subarray).
3. Check the XOR and modify the count: If the XOR is equal to k, we will increase the count by 1.

### Intuition:

We will check the XOR of every possible subarray and count how many of them are equal to k. To get every possible subarray sum, we will be using three nested loops. The first two loops(say i and j) will iterate over every possible starting index and ending index of a subarray. Basically, in each iteration, the subarray range will be from index i to index j. Using another loop we will get the XOR of the elements of the subarray [i…..j]. Among all values of the XOR calculated, we will only consider those that are equal to k.

Note: We are selecting every possible subarray using two nested loops and for each of the subarrays, we are calculating the XOR of all its elements using another loop.

Note: For a better understanding of intuition, please watch the video at the bottom of the page.

Code
``````

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

int subarraysWithXorK(vector<int> a, int k) {
int n = a.size(); //size of the given array.
int cnt = 0;

// Step 1: Generating subarrays:
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
for (int j = i; j < n; j++) {

//step 2:calculate XOR of all
// elements:
int xorr = 0;
for (int K = i; K <= j; K++) {
xorr = xorr ^ a[K];
}

// step 3:check XOR and count:
if (xorr == k) cnt++;
}
}
return cnt;
}

int main()
{
vector<int> a = {4, 2, 2, 6, 4};
int k = 6;
int ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
cout << "The number of subarrays with XOR k is: "
<< ans << "\n";
return 0;
}
```
```
``````

import java.util.*;

public class tUf {

public static int subarraysWithXorK(int []a, int k) {
int n = a.length; //size of the given array.
int cnt = 0;

// Step 1: Generating subarrays:
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
for (int j = i; j < n; j++) {

//step 2:calculate XOR of all
// elements:
int xorr = 0;
for (int K = i; K <= j; K++) {
xorr = xorr ^ a[K];
}

// step 3:check XOR and count:
if (xorr == k) cnt++;
}
}
return cnt;
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] a = {4, 2, 2, 6, 4};
int k = 6;
int ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
System.out.println("The number of subarrays with XOR k is: " + ans);
}
}
```
```
``````

def subarraysWithXorK(a: [int], b: int) -> int:
n = len(a)  # size of the given array.
cnt = 0

# Step 1: Generating subarrays:
for i in range(n):
for j in range(i, n):

# step 2: calculate XOR of all elements:
xorr = 0
for K in range(i, j + 1):
xorr = xorr ^ a[K]

# step 3: check XOR and count:
if (xorr == k):
cnt += 1

return cnt

if __name__ == "__main__":
a = [4, 2, 2, 6, 4]
k = 6
ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k)
print("The number of subarrays with XOR k is:", ans)
```
```
``````

function subarraysWithXorK(a, k) {
const n = a.length;
let cnt = 0;

// Step 1: Generating subarrays:
for (let i = 0; i < n; i++) {
for (let j = i; j < n; j++) {

// Step 2: calculate XOR of all elements:
let xorr = 0;
for (let K = i; K <= j; K++) {
xorr = xorr ^ a[K];
}

// Step 3: check XOR and count:
if (xorr === k) cnt++;
}
}
return cnt;
}

const a = [4, 2, 2, 6, 4];
const k = 6;
const ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
console.log("The number of subarrays with XOR k is:", ans);
```
```

Output: The number of subarrays with XOR k is: 4

Complexity Analysis

Time Complexity: O(N3) approx., where N = size of the array.
Reason: We are using three nested loops, each running approximately N times.

Space Complexity: O(1) as we are not using any extra space.

Better Approach
Algorithm / Intuition

### Approach:

The steps are as follows:

1. Generate Subarrays:
1. First, we will run a loop(say i) that will select every possible starting index of the subarray. The possible starting indices can vary from index 0 to index n-1(n = array size).
2. Inside the loop, we will run another loop(say j) that will signify the ending index as well as the current element of the subarray. For every subarray starting from the index i, the possible ending index can vary from index i to n-1(n = size of the array).
2. Calculate XOR of the subarray: Inside loop j, we will XOR the current element to the XOR of the previous subarray i.e. xorr = XOR(a[i….j-1]) ^ arr[j]
3. Check the XOR and modify the count: After calculating the XOR, we will check if the sum is equal to the given k. If it is, we will increase the value of the count.

Intuition: If we carefully observe, we can notice that to get the XOR of the current subarray we just need to XOR the current element(i.e. arr[j]) to the XOR of the previous subarray i.e. arr[i….j-1].

```Assume previous subarray = arr[i……j-1]
current subarray = arr[i…..j]
XOR of arr[i….j] = (XOR of arr[i….j-1]) ^ arr[j]```

This is how we can remove the third loop and while moving j pointer, we can calculate the XOR.

Note: For a better understanding of intuition, please watch the video at the bottom of the page.

Code
``````

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

int subarraysWithXorK(vector<int> a, int k) {
int n = a.size(); //size of the given array.
int cnt = 0;

// Step 1: Generating subarrays:
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
int xorr = 0;
for (int j = i; j < n; j++) {

//step 2:calculate XOR of all
// elements:
xorr = xorr ^ a[j];

// step 3:check XOR and count:
if (xorr == k) cnt++;
}
}
return cnt;
}

int main()
{
vector<int> a = {4, 2, 2, 6, 4};
int k = 6;
int ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
cout << "The number of subarrays with XOR k is: "
<< ans << "\n";
return 0;
}

```
```
``````

import java.util.*;

public class tUf {

public static int subarraysWithXorK(int []a, int k) {
int n = a.length; //size of the given array.
int cnt = 0;

// Step 1: Generating subarrays:
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
int xorr = 0;
for (int j = i; j < n; j++) {

//step 2:calculate XOR of all
// elements:
xorr = xorr ^ a[j];

// step 3:check XOR and count:
if (xorr == k) cnt++;
}
}
return cnt;
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] a = {4, 2, 2, 6, 4};
int k = 6;
int ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
System.out.println("The number of subarrays with XOR k is: " + ans);
}
}
```
```
``````

def subarraysWithXorK(a: [int], b: int) -> int:
n = len(a)  # size of the given array.
cnt = 0

# Step 1: Generating subarrays:
for i in range(n):
xorr = 0
for j in range(i, n):

# step 2: calculate XOR of all elements:
xorr = xorr ^ a[j]

# step 3: check XOR and count:
if (xorr == k):
cnt += 1

return cnt

if __name__ == "__main__":
a = [4, 2, 2, 6, 4]
k = 6
ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k)
print("The number of subarrays with XOR k is:", ans)
```
```
``````

function subarraysWithXorK(a, k) {
const n = a.length; //size of the given array.
let cnt = 0;

// Step 1: Generating subarrays:
for (let i = 0; i < n; i++) {
let xorr = 0;
for (let j = i; j < n; j++) {

//step 2:calculate XOR of all
// elements:
xorr = xorr ^ a[j];

// step 3:check XOR and count:
if (xorr == k) cnt++;
}
}
return cnt;
}

const a = [4, 2, 2, 6, 4];
const k = 6;
const ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
console.log(`The number of subarrays with XOR k is: \${ans}`);
```
```

Output: The number of subarrays with XOR k is: 4

Complexity Analysis

Time Complexity: O(N2), where N = size of the array.
Reason: We are using two nested loops here. As each of them is running for N times, the time complexity will be approximately O(N2).

Space Complexity: O(1) as we are not using any extra space.

Optimal Approach
Algorithm / Intuition

### Optimal Approach(Using Hashing):

In this approach, we are going to use the concept of the prefix XOR to solve this problem. Here, the prefix XOR of a subarray ending at index i, simply means the XOR of all the elements of that subarray.

Observation: Assume, the prefix XOR of a subarray ending at index i is xr. In that subarray, we will search for another subarray ending at index i, whose XOR is equal to k. Here, we need to observe that if there exists another subarray ending at index i, with XOR k, then the prefix XOR of the rest of the subarray will be xr^k. The below image will clarify the concept:

Now, for a subarray ending at index i with the prefix XOR xr, if we remove the part with the prefix XOR xr^k, we will be left with the part whose XOR is equal to k. And that is what we want.

Now, there may exist multiple subarrays with the prefix XOR xr^k. So, the number of subarrays with XOR k that we can generate from the entire subarray ending at index i, is exactly equal to the number of subarrays with the prefix XOR xr^k, present in that subarray.

So, for a subarray ending at index i, instead of counting the subarrays with XOR k, we can count the subarrays with the prefix XOR xr^k present in it.

That is why, instead of searching the subarrays with XOR k, we will keep the occurrence of the prefix XOR of the subarrays using a map data structure.

In the map, we will store every prefix XOR calculated, with its occurrence in a <key, value> pair. Now, at index i, we just need to check the map data structure to get the number of times that the subarrays with the prefix XOR xr^k occur. Then we will simply add that number to our count.

We will apply the above process for all possible indices of the given array. The possible values of the index i can be from 0 to n-1(where n = size of the array).

### Approach:

The steps are as follows:

1. First, we will declare a map to store the prefix XORs and their counts.
2. Then, we will set the value of 0 as 1 on the map.
3. Then we will run a loop(say i) from index 0 to n-1(n = size of the array).
4. For each index i, we will do the following:
1. We will XOR the current element i.e. arr[i] to the existing prefix XOR.
2. Then we will calculate the prefix XOR i.e. xr^k, for which we need the occurrence.
3. We will add the occurrence of the prefix XOR xr^k i.e. mpp[xr^k] to our answer.
4. Then we will store the current prefix XOR, xr in the map increasing its occurrence by 1.

Question: Why do we need to set the value of 0 beforehand?
Let’s understand this using an example. Assume the given array is [3, 3, 1, 1, 1] and k is 3. Now, for index 0, we get the total prefix XOR as 3, and k is also 3. So, the prefix XOR xr^k will be = 3^3 = 0. Now, if the value is not previously set for the key 0 in the map, we will get the default value 0 and we will add 0 to our answer. This will mean that we have not found any subarray with XOR 3 till now. But this should not be the case as index 0 itself is a subarray with XOR k i.e. 3.
So, in order to avoid this situation we need to set the value of 0 as 1 on the map beforehand.

Note: For a better understanding of intuition, please watch the video at the bottom of the page.

Code
``````

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

int subarraysWithXorK(vector<int> a, int k) {
int n = a.size(); //size of the given array.
int xr = 0;
map<int, int> mpp; //declaring the map.
mpp[xr]++; //setting the value of 0.
int cnt = 0;

for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
// prefix XOR till index i:
xr = xr ^ a[i];

//By formula: x = xr^k:
int x = xr ^ k;

// add the occurrence of xr^k
// to the count:
cnt += mpp[x];

// Insert the prefix xor till index i
// into the map:
mpp[xr]++;
}
return cnt;
}

int main()
{
vector<int> a = {4, 2, 2, 6, 4};
int k = 6;
int ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
cout << "The number of subarrays with XOR k is: "
<< ans << "\n";
return 0;
}
```
```
``````

import java.util.*;

public class tUf {

public static int subarraysWithXorK(int []a, int k) {
int n = a.length; //size of the given array.
int xr = 0;
Map<Integer, Integer> mpp = new HashMap<>(); //declaring the map.
mpp.put(xr, 1); //setting the value of 0.
int cnt = 0;

for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
// prefix XOR till index i:
xr = xr ^ a[i];

//By formula: x = xr^k:
int x = xr ^ k;

// add the occurrence of xr^k
// to the count:
if (mpp.containsKey(x)) {
cnt += mpp.get(x);
}

// Insert the prefix xor till index i
// into the map:
if (mpp.containsKey(xr)) {
mpp.put(xr, mpp.get(xr) + 1);
} else {
mpp.put(xr, 1);
}
}
return cnt;
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] a = {4, 2, 2, 6, 4};
int k = 6;
int ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
System.out.println("The number of subarrays with XOR k is: " + ans);
}
}

```
```
``````

from collections import defaultdict

def subarraysWithXorK(a: [int], b: int) -> int:
n = len(a) # size of the given array.
xr = 0
mpp = defaultdict(int) # declaring the dictionary.
mpp[xr] = 1 # setting the value of 0.
cnt = 0

for i in range(n):
# prefix XOR till index i:
xr = xr ^ a[i]

# By formula: x = xr^k:
x = xr ^ k

# add the occurrence of xr^k
# to the count:
cnt += mpp[x]

# Insert the prefix xor till index i
# into the dictionary:
mpp[xr] += 1

return cnt

if __name__ == "__main__":
a = [4, 2, 2, 6, 4]
k = 6
ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k)
print("The number of subarrays with XOR k is:", ans)

```
```
``````

function subarraysWithXorK(a, k) {
const n = a.length; //size of the given array.
let xr = 0;
const mpp = new Map(); //declaring the map.
mpp.set(xr, 1); //setting the value of 0.
let cnt = 0;

for (let i = 0; i < n; i++) {
// prefix XOR till index i:
xr = xr ^ a[i];

//By formula: x = xr^k:
const x = xr ^ k;

// add the occurrence of xr^k
// to the count:
cnt += mpp.get(x) || 0;

// Insert the prefix xor till index i
// into the map:
mpp.set(xr, (mpp.get(xr) || 0) + 1);
}
return cnt;
}

const a = [4, 2, 2, 6, 4];
const k = 6;
const ans = subarraysWithXorK(a, k);
console.log(`The number of subarrays with XOR k is: \${ans}`);

```
```

Output: The number of subarrays with XOR k is: 4

Complexity Analysis

Time Complexity: O(N) or O(N*logN) depending on which map data structure we are using, where N = size of the array.
Reason: For example, if we are using an unordered_map data structure in C++ the time complexity will be O(N) but if we are using a map data structure, the time complexity will be O(N*logN). The least complexity will be O(N) as we are using a loop to traverse the array. Point to remember for unordered_map in the worst case, the searching time increases to O(N), and hence the overall time complexity increases to O(N2).

Space Complexity: O(N) as we are using a map data structure.

Video Explanation

Note: To know more about maps, please refer to this: Hashing | Maps | Time Complexity | Collisions | Division Rule of Hashing | Strivers A2Z DSA Course.